- The following cases of mistake or oness are eligible for tashlumin:
a: You thought you daavened but realized not, after it was too late.
b: Forgot to daaven.
c: You couldn’t because it was out of your control (e.g. sick or drunk).
d: You didn’t think you could have the proper frame of mind.
e: You didn’t want to daaven because you had no water to wash beforehand.
(ShA 1 – BeH “ta’a” – MB 1,2)
- The first Shemoneh Esray will be for your present obligation and the second will be the tashlumin. If you intended for the opposite, you must daaven the tashlumin again. (ShA 1)
- The only case that bedieved you can rely on the chazoras hashatz for your tashlumin is if you missed Maariv and you need tashlumin in the morning. (MB 5)
- If you are daavening two tefillos during Shacharis or Mincha you should say the Tachanun after the first tefilla, then Ashray (for Shacharis, that will replace the Ashray that you would be saying before Lam’natzayach), then the Shemoneh Esray of tashlumin. If you are in a tzibbur you may also listen to the Chazoras Hashatz before beginning the tashlumin Shemoneh Esray. (ShA 2 – MB 11,12,13)
- If you are daavening two tefillos during Maariv and it is still daytime, say Ashray in between the two. After dark, at least wait 3-4 seconds in between the two Shemoneh Esrays as mentioned above in Siman 105. (Rama 2 – MB 14)
- If you come late and the tzibbur is about to begin Mincha Shemoneh Esray, postpone Ashray and begin with them. Afterwards, say the Ashray having in mind not for an obligation, rather like learning Torah. (MB 14)
- The time limit for the nightly Maariv is chatzos, lechatchila. (MB 15)
- Tefillas tashlumin should, lechatchila, be said immediately after the obligatory Tefilla. See above #180, #181 for the only interruptions allowed. If more than that amount of interruption occurred, then make the following condition before beginning the tefillas tashlumin: “If I am obligated to still daaven tashlumin, this should be to fulfil my obligation – and if not, this should be a tefillas nedova.” (MB 15)
- Whenever (on a weekday) there is a doubt about your obligation to daaven Shemoneh Esray because of an argument in the poskim, make a condition before daavening: “If I am not obligated, this should be a nedova”. (MB 33)
- Tashlumin only works for the tefilla that you last missed. Therefore even if you missed two tefillos you will only daaven one tashlumin. (ShA 4)
- If you didn’t daaven Shacharis, but did daaven Musaf and it is still within z’man Shacharis – daaven Shacharis. (MB 16)
- If you forgot Shacharis and Musaf and remembered during Mincha time, daaven Mincha then Musaf and then tashlumin for Shacharis. (MB 16)
- If the entire day passed and you didn’t daaven Musaf, there is no tashlumin for it. (ShA 6)
- If you postponed daavening thinking you will have time later and meanwhile the time limit passed, you are eligible for tashlumin. (ShA 8)
- You should give up to a fifth of your wealth in order to fulfil the mitzva of tefilla. If you were busy trying not to suffer a loss of property, or even busy buying and selling merchandise and the time limit passed by – you are never-the-less eligible for tashlumin. (ShA 8 – MB 24 – BeH “mihu”)
- If you missed Mincha on erev Shabbos, daaven two Shabbos-night Shemoneh Esrays. (ShA 9)
- If you missed Mincha on Shabbos, daaven two Motzoay Shabbos Shemoneh Esrays. Add Havdalla into the first, not the second. (ShA 10)
- If you missed Maariv on Motzoay Shabbos, daaven two Shacharis Shemoneh Esrays. Do not add “atta chonantanu” to either, even if you didn’t yet say Havdalla on wine. (MB 33)
- What’s the din if you said Ya’aleh V’ yavo when it was not Rosh Chodesh?
a: If you caught the mistake before saying something false (i.e. “b’yom Rosh Hachodesh hazeh”) – it’s not a bad mistake. Continue from “V’sechezenah…”.
b: If you already said something false, it’s like talking in the middle of Shemoneh Esray. Go back to the beginning of the beracha – “R’tzay…”.
c: If you only realized your mistake after you finished the beracha (and certainly after completing the Shemoneh Esray), do not go back. Proceed as normal. (ShA 12 – MB 38)